The higher probability of negative outcomes from workplace anger likely will occur in either of two situations. The first is when organizational members suppress rather than express their anger—that is, they fail to cross the "expression threshold". In this instance personnel who might be able to address or resolve the anger-provoking condition or event remain unaware of the problem, allowing it to continue, along with the affected individual's anger. The second is when organizational members cross both thresholds—"double cross"— displaying anger that is perceived as deviant.
In such cases the angry person is seen as the problem—increasing chances of organizational sanctions against him or her while diverting attention away from the initial anger-provoking incident. In contrast, a higher probability of positive outcomes from workplace anger expression likely will occur when one's expressed anger stays in the space between the expression and impropriety thresholds. Here, one expresses anger in a way fellow organizational members find acceptable, prompting exchanges and discussions that may help resolve concerns to the satisfaction of all parties involved.
This space between the thresholds varies among different organizations and also can be changed in organization itself: when the change is directed to support anger displays; the space between the thresholds will be expanded and when the change is directed to suppressing such displays; the space will be reduced. Neuroscience has shown that emotions are generated by multiple structures in the brain. The rapid, minimal, and evaluative processing of the emotional significance of the sensory data is done when the data passes through the amygdala in its travel from the sensory organs along certain neural pathways towards the limbic forebrain.
Emotion caused by discrimination of stimulus features, thoughts, or memories however occurs when its information is relayed from the thalamus to the neocortex.
Distinguishing between genetic and environmental factors however requires further research and actual measurement of specific genes and environments. In neuroimaging studies of anger, the most consistently activated region of the brain was the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. The external expression of anger can be found in physiological responses, facial expressions, body language , and at times in public acts of aggression. Blood flows to the hands. Perspiration increases particularly when the anger is intense.
The nostrils flare. The jaw tenses. The brow muscles move inward and downward, fixing a hard stare on the target. The arms are raised and a squared-off stance is adopted. The body is mobilized for immediate action, often manifesting as a subjective sense of strength, self-assurance, and potency. This may encourage the impulse to strike out. Ancient Greek philosophers, describing and commenting on the uncontrolled anger, particularly toward slaves, in their society generally showed a hostile attitude towards anger.
Galen and Seneca regarded anger as a kind of madness. They all rejected the spontaneous, uncontrolled fits of anger and agreed on both the possibility and value of controlling anger.diatamulatumb.gq/one-handed-fractions.php
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There were however disagreements regarding the value of anger. For Seneca, anger was "worthless even for war. He argued that " Aristotle on the other hand, ascribed some value to anger that has arisen from perceived injustice because it is useful for preventing injustice. Seneca held that "red-haired and red-faced people are hot-tempered because of excessive hot and dry humors. Strongman perhaps because their works were not intended for women.
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Some of them that discuss it, such as Seneca, considered women to be more prone to anger than men. Seneca addresses the question of mastering anger in three parts: 1. One should avoid being too busy or deal with anger-provoking people. Unnecessary hunger or thirst should be avoided and soothing music be listened to. In dealing with other people, one should not be too inquisitive: It is not always soothing to hear and see everything. When someone appears to slight you, you should be at first reluctant to believe this, and should wait to hear the full story.
You should also put yourself in the place of the other person, trying to understand his motives and any extenuating factors, such as age or illness. A certain kind of deception, Seneca says, is necessary in dealing with angry people. Galen repeats Seneca's points but adds a new one: finding a guide and teacher can help the person in controlling their passions.
Galen also gives some hints for finding a good teacher. Seneca warns that this education should not blunt the spirit of the children nor should they be humiliated or treated severely. At the same time, they should not be pampered. Children, Seneca says, should learn not to beat their playmates and not to become angry with them. Seneca also advises that children's requests should not be granted when they are angry. During the period of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages , philosophers elaborated on the existing conception of anger, many of whom did not make major contributions to the concept.
For example, many medieval philosophers such as Ibn Sina Avicenna , Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas agreed with ancient philosophers that animals cannot become angry. He also argued that animal will is "conditioned by anger and appetite" in contrast to human will which is "conditioned by the intellect. Wrath was sinful because of the social problems it caused, sometimes even homicide. It served to ignore those who are present, contradicts those who are absent, produces insults, and responds harshly to insults that are received. Aquinas felt that if anger was justified, it was not a sin.
For example, "He that is angry without cause, shall be in danger; but he that is angry with cause, shall not be in danger: for without anger, teaching will be useless, judgments unstable, crimes unchecked. Therefore to be angry is not always an evil. The concept of wrath contributed to a definition of gender and power. Many medieval authors in agreed the differences between men and women were based on complexion, shape, and disposition.
Complexion involved the balance of the four fundamental qualities of heat, coldness, moistness, and dryness. When various combinations of these qualities are made they define groups of certain people as well as individuals. Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen all agreed on that, in terms of biology and sexual differentiation, heat was the most important of the qualities because it determined shape and disposition.
Disposition included a balance of the previous four qualities, the four elements and the four humors. For example, the element of fire shared the qualities of heat and dryness: fire dominated in yellow bile or choler, meaning a choleric person was more or hot and dry than others. Hot and dry individuals were active, dominant, and aggressive. The opposite was true with the element of water. Water, is cold and moist, related closely to phlegm: people with more phlegmatic personalities were passive and submissive.
While these trait clusters varied from individual to individual most authors in the Middle Ages assumed certain clusters of traits characterized men more than women and vice versa. Scholars posted that females were seen by authors in the Middle Ages to be more phlegmatic cold and wet than males, meaning females were more sedentary and passive than males.
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Aristotle identified traits he believed women shared: female, feminine, passive, focused on matter, inactive, and inferior. Thus medieval women were supposed to act submissively toward men and relinquish control to their husbands. While most women were phlegmatic, individual women under certain circumstances could also be choleric. Medieval scholars believed most men were choleric, or hot and dry. Thus they were dominant and aggressive. Barton Aristotle also identified characteristics of men: male, masculine, active, focused on form, potent, outstanding, and superior.
Men were aware of the power they held. Given their choleric "nature", men exhibited hot temperatures and were quick to anger. Masculinity involved a wide range of possible behaviors, and men were not angry all the time. Every man's humoral balance was different, some men were strong, other weak, also some more prone to wrath then others. For instance, David Brakke maintained:. Much research has explored whether the emotion of anger is experienced and expressed differently depending on the culture.
Matsumotto 77 conducted a study in which White-American and Asian participants needed to express the emotions from a program called JACFEE Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion in order to determine whether Caucasian observers noticed any differences in expression of participants of a different nationality.
He found that participants were unable to assign a nationality to people demonstrating expression of anger i. Hatfield, Rapson, and Le 78 conducted a study that measured ethnic differences in emotional expression using participants from the Philippines, Hawaii, China, and Europe. They concluded that there was a difference between how someone expresses an emotion, especially the emotion of anger in people with different ethnicities, based on frequency, with Europeans showing the lowest frequency of expression of negative emotions.
Other research investigates anger within different ethnic groups who live in the same country. They found that, after controlling for sex and age, Black participants did not feel or express more anger than Whites. Deffenbacher and Swaim 80 compared the expression of anger in Mexican American people and White non-Hispanic American people. They concluded that White non-Hispanic Americans expressed more verbal aggression than Mexican Americans, although when it came to physical aggression expressions there was no significant difference between both cultures when it came to anger.
Maimonides considered being given to uncontrollable passions as a kind of illness. Like Galen, Maimonides suggested seeking out a philosopher for curing this illness just as one seeks out a physician for curing bodily illnesses. Roger Bacon elaborates Seneca's advices. Many medieval writers discuss at length the evils of anger and the virtues of temperance.
In a discussion of confession , John Mirk , an English 14th-century Augustinian writer, tells priests how to advise the penitent by considering the spiritual and social consequences of anger: . In The Canon of Medicine , Ibn Sina Avicenna modified the theory of temperaments and argued that anger heralded the transition of melancholia to mania, and explained that humidity inside the head can contribute to such mood disorders. On the other hand, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi classified anger along with aggression as a type of neurosis ,  while al-Ghazali argued that anger takes form in rage, indignation and revenge, and that "the powers of the soul become balanced if it keeps anger under control.
The modern understanding of anger may not be greatly advanced over that of Aristotle. Regarding the latter, David Hume argues that because "anger and hatred are passions inherent in our very frame and constitution, the lack of them is sometimes evidence of weakness and imbecility.
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The latter does not seem to have been of much concern to earlier philosophers. The American psychologist Albert Ellis has suggested that anger, rage, and fury partly have roots in the philosophical meanings and assumptions through which human beings interpret transgression. In Judaism , anger is a negative trait. In the Book of Genesis , Jacob condemned the anger that had arisen in his sons Simon and Levi: "Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel. Restraining oneself from anger is seen as noble and desirable, as Ethics of the Fathers states:.
He who subdues his evil inclination, as it is stated, 'He who is slow to anger is better than a strong man, and he who masters his passions is better than one who conquers a city' Proverbs Maimonides rules that one who becomes angry is as though that person had worshipped idols.
In its section dealing with ethical traits a person should adopt, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch states: "Anger is also a very evil trait and it should be avoided at all costs. You should train yourself not to become angry even if you have a good reason to be angry. In modern writings, Rabbi Harold Kushner finds no grounds for anger toward God because "our misfortunes are none of His doing.
Both Catholic and Protestant writers have addressed anger. Wrath is one of the Seven Deadly Sins in Catholicism; and yet the Catechism of the Catholic Church states canons and that anger is among the passions, and that "in the passions, as movements of the sensitive appetite, there is neither good nor evil. CCC Medieval Christianity vigorously denounced wrath as one of the seven cardinal, or deadly sins , but some Christian writers at times regarded the anger caused by injustice as having some value. Delany in the Catholic Encyclopedia defines anger as "the desire of vengeance" and states that a reasonable vengeance and passion is ethical and praiseworthy.
Vengeance is sinful when it exceeds its limits in which case it becomes opposed to justice and charity. For example, "vengeance upon one who has not deserved it, or to a greater extent than it has been deserved, or in conflict with the dispositions of law, or from an improper motive" are all sinful.
An unduly vehement vengeance is considered a venial sin unless it seriously goes counter to the love of God or of one's neighbor. A more positive view of anger is espoused by Roman Catholic pastoral theologian Henri J. In the Bible, says Father Nouwen, "it is clear that only by expressing our anger and hatred directly to God will we come to know the fullness of both his love and our freedom. The countess gave birth to the son she had long wanted, but the child died. She was fiercely angry.
When the priest called, the countess vented her anger toward her daughter and husband, then at the priest who responded gently, "open your heart to [God]. When you've forced me to admit that I hate Him, will you be any better off? Hate is indifference and contempt. Now at last you're face to face with Him Shake your fist at Him, spit in His face, scourge Him. By confessing her hate, she was enabled to say, "all's well. Everyone experiences anger, Andrew D. Lester observes, and furthermore anger can serve as "a spiritual friend, a spiritual guide, and a spiritual ally.
Paul's admonition in his Epistle to the Ephesians However, expressing one's anger toward God can deepen the relationship. FitzSimons Allison holds that "we worship God by expressing our honest anger at him. Biblical scholar Leonard Pine concludes from his studies in the Book of Habakkuk that "far from being a sin, proper remonstration with God is the activity of a healthy faith relationship with Him. In Hinduism , anger is equated with sorrow as a form of unrequited desire.
The objects of anger are perceived as a hindrance to the gratification of the desires of the angry person. Anger is considered to be packed with more evil power than desire. As for the agitations of the bickering mind, they are divided into two divisions.
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Reference needed. Frustration of material desires produces anger. Anger is defined in Buddhism as: "being unable to bear the object, or the intention to cause harm to the object. Buddhist monks, such as Dalai Lama , the spiritual leader of Tibetans in exile, sometimes get angry. Thus, in response to the question: "Is any anger acceptable in Buddhism?
Buddhism in general teaches that anger is a destructive emotion and although anger might have some positive effects in terms of survival or moral outrage, I do not accept that anger of any kind as sic a virtuous emotion nor aggression as constructive behavior. The Gautama Buddha sic has taught that there are three basic kleshas at the root of samsara bondage, illusion and the vicious cycle of rebirth. These are greed, hatred, and delusion—also translatable as attachment, anger, and ignorance. They bring us confusion and misery rather than peace, happiness, and fulfillment.
It is in our own self-interest to purify and transform them. Buddhist scholar and author Geshe Kelsang Gyatso has also explained Buddha 's teaching on the spiritual imperative to identify anger and overcome it by transforming difficulties: . When things go wrong in our life and we encounter difficult situations, we tend to regard the situation itself as our problem, but in reality whatever problems we experience come from the side of the mind.
If we responded to difficult situations with a positive or peaceful mind they would not be problems for us. Eventually, we might even regard them as challenges or opportunities for growth and development. Problems arise only if we respond to difficulties with a negative state of mind. Therefore if we want to be free from problems, we must transform our mind.
The Buddha himself on anger: . A person overwhelmed with anger destroys his wealth.
Maddened with anger, he destroys his status. Anger brings loss. Anger inflames the mind. He doesn't realize that his danger is born from within. An angry person doesn't know his own benefit. An angry person doesn't see the Dharma. A man conquered by anger is in a mass of darkness. He takes pleasure in bad deeds as if they were good, but later, when his anger is gone, he suffers as if burned with fire.
He is spoiled, blotted out, like fire enveloped in smoke. When anger spreads, when a man becomes angry, he has no shame, no fear of evil, is not respectful in speech. For a person overcome with anger, nothing gives light. A verse in the third surah of the Quran instructs people to restrain their anger. It mentions the anger of Moses Musa against his people for worshiping a golden calf and at the moment when Moses strikes an Egyptian for fighting against an Israelite.
The hadis state various ways to diminish, prevent and control anger. It has also been stated by the Imam Ali, the "Commander of the faithful" and the son-in-law of prophet Muhammad that "A moment of patience in a moment of anger saves a thousand moments of regret. In many religions, anger is frequently attributed to God or gods. Primitive people held that gods were subject to anger and revenge in anthropomorphic fashion.
God is not an intellectual abstraction, nor is He conceived as a being indifferent to the doings of man; and His pure and lofty nature resents most energetically anything wrong and impure in the moral world: "O Lord, my God, mine Holy One Thou art of eyes too pure to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity. Christians believe in God's anger at the sight of evil.
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This anger is not inconsistent with God's love, as demonstrated in the Gospel where the righteous indignation of Christ is shown in the Cleansing of the Temple. Christians believe that those who reject His revealed Word, Jesus, condemn themselves, and are not condemned by the wrath of God. Matsumoto, D. Emotion judgments do not differ as a function of perceived nationality.
International Journal of Psychology, 42 3 , Hatfield, E. Ethnic and gender differences in emotional ideology, experience, and expression. Mabry, J. Anger in Black and White: Race, alienation, and anger. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46 1 , Deffenbacher, J. Anger expression in Mexican American and White non-Hispanic adolescents.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46 1 , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Anger disambiguation. For other uses, see Angry disambiguation. For other uses, see Wrath disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Anger management. Of Anger. See also: The four humours. Main article: Anger in Judaism. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing 3rd ed. Retrieved Autumn, , pp. Personality and Individual Differences. In Blanchard, Robert J. Caroline eds. Advances in the Study of Aggression.
Academic Press. An earlier plan to exact revenge on women backfired. He wrote that he tried to shove "girls" at a party over a ledge, but he couldn't do it, and then men rushed to him and pushed him over. I slowly got up and found that I couldn't even walk. I had to stumble, and stumble I did. I tried to get away from there as fast as I could.
But he realized someone had taken Gucci sunglasses his mother had given him, and went back to get them. The same people he had tangled with before began mocking him and calling him names, then dragged him into the driveway to beat him up, he wrote. He staggered away in pain.
A year-old neighbor at Capri Apartments in Isla Vista said he saw Rodger come home, crying, "his face all bashed in, his knuckles cut up. The neighbor, who asked not to be identified, said he had tried to get Rodger to hang out and party with him and others in the communal courtyard. Rodger usually said no, and the few times he agreed, "he just sat in the chair and stared at everyone the entire time.
Seeing Rodger injured, the neighbor asked what happened. Rodger said he was jumped by a group of men. Rodger wrote that he first began to plan his "Day of Retribution" in the spring of I'd never even consider it. The Southern Poverty Law Center collected a string of racist and misogynistic comments he made on a site called PuaHate. In one he ridiculed an Asian man trying to date a white girl, and said it was "rage-inducing" to see a "black guy chilling with 4 hot white girls.
The videos give a more intimate view of his pathos. One afternoon, he was walking through the parking lot of the Sandpiper Golf Club on the bluffs just west of Isla Vista. It's such a tragedy that I've had such a pathetic life in it, all because of the cruelty of humanity and women. He said he went there regularly to watch the sunset because usually there were no couples to envy.
He approached his car, and the camera caught his reflection on it. I am so awesome. But girls are not sexually attracted to me. I, in all my magnificence and power, I will not let this fly. Skip to content. Elliot Rodger's ramblings describe the internal turmoil of a young man at once arrogant and pathetic, unable to see a better future, sinking deeper into despair and anger. He said he dyed his hair blond to fit in but was increasingly bullied by ninth grade.
I cried by myself at school every day. As he planned the attack, he left a trail of bitter comments on online forums. He sat in the driver's seat. His tone turned more menacing.